Anyone who has suffered from a toothache knows exactly why teeth, their treatment - even if it's just a biannual check by a specialist - and their illnesses are a sensitive issue: Toothache is one of the most unpleasant physical sensations.
How do you develop toothache?
Teeth have strong and very sensitive nerve endings inside, which are usually well protected by the hard and insensitive exterior of the teeth. These nerve fibers transmit all sensations through the three-part facial nerve, the trigeminal nerve, to the nearby brain. The trigeminal nerve also contains nerve endings responsible for the masticatory and mucous membranes of the mouth and nose. Thus, pain on a tooth can easily radiate into the environment.
When the exterior of the tooth, the hard enamel, is damaged by injuries, bacteria, pressure or chemicals, it irritates the nerve fibers and produces piercing, dull, stinging or throbbing pains - the nature of the pain varies with the cause.
First signs and consequences of toothache
The pain often radiates into the upper or lower jaw, can move up to the temples and appear as a headache. The pain often leads to a massive health impairment and are not long tolerated by the person concerned: Fortunately, it is because often inflammation is due to the pain and they can spread rapidly on the bloodstream in the direction of the brain.
Most severe toothache is preceded by a phase in which a single tooth is particularly sensitive to cold, heat, pressure or sweetness. These signs should always be used as a warning sign that the enamel of your teeth is under attack and you should urgently do something for your teeth.
What are the reasons for toothache?
In addition to missing or attacked tooth enamel is the most common cause of toothache caries. Caries is the most common disease of mankind, although it has not yet been conclusively clarified whether caries is contagious or not. Tooth decay and enamel are infested with tooth decay - holes are formed.
In order to develop tooth decay, various factors must work together: Plaque from bacteria and sugary nutrients forms differently depending on tooth brushing behavior. The saliva composition and the structure of the teeth also play an important role. If a caries remains untreated (because it does not cause any pain at first), it can expand and attack the tooth interior, the dental pulp, in which the supply structures of the tooth, so nerves and blood vessels, run.
Pulpitis and apical osteitis
A pulpitis, ie an inflammation of the pulp, in addition to caries also have other causes, such as a thermal or chemical irritation by an extensive tooth repair treatment. It can be extremely painful, but also painless and heal spontaneously when the original stimulus is extinguished.
If it progresses to apical osteitis, the inflammation spreads through the interior of the tooth to the roots of the tooth and leads to the death of the tooth tissue.
Toothache: periodontitis as the cause
In addition to a caries disease and its consequences occur in a periodontitis - ie an inflammation of the periodontium, namely the gums - pain on. Burning pain is common with mild gingivitis, but severe periodontitis is often painless: only the apparent extension of the necks indicates that the gums are receding.
Growth problems and deformities
In babies, toothache causes tooth decay as the teeth break out of the gums - in adults, the same discomfort is seen as the wisdom teeth pass through. In children, toothache can also indicate a malocclusion or incorrectly placed braces.
But malpositions of the temporomandibular joint can cause pronounced toothache. Often, such malpositions are expressed by nocturnal teeth grinding, which the person concerned, however, does not have to notice. However, after waking up, he often finds his jaw muscles are tight and his teeth ache. Incidentally, stress-induced teeth grinding can lead to jaw malpositions, and vice versa can be a jaw malformation Zweiseknirschen fault!
As a further category dentists know so-called atypical toothache, in which the sometimes severe pain can not be assigned to a specific tooth and its surroundings. Some of the pain lasts a long time and can sometimes occur elsewhere.
Toothache as a result of other diseases
In addition, diseases of other body regions can cause pain in the teeth. For example, middle ear or sinusitis can radiate into the mouth, severe headaches such as migraines can also lead to toothaches and even a narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina pectoris) or a heart attack can be felt by toothache alone.