Minor wounds such as skin abrasions or minor cuts are common in children, and bleeding will stop automatically in a few minutes. They may air-dry or be cleaned, disinfected and possibly covered with a patch. For large wounds with heavy blood loss, however, caution is needed, because children have a lower overall blood volume. It comes more often to severe general symptoms to shock.
Stop bleeding by pressure
One knows it even from the blood loss with the physician: The direct pressure on the wound leads after some time to the stop of the bleeding. As a rule, this also applies to large wounds. Therefore, use a sterile or clean cloth to squeeze the wound and apply a bandage. The affected area of the body is - if possible - stored elevated. If the bleeding is not brought to a standstill by these measures, another pressure bandage must be applied.
That's how it works:
- Do not open the old bandage but put another tight bandage over it.
- To increase the pressure, place a packaged bandage on the wound area and wrap tightly with the gauze bandage.
- If necessary, the feeding wire must be pressed. All splashing haemorrhages are shed before the bleeding point (towards the heart).
- In the case of a very large, open wound, press the bleeding directly with a sterile compress in the wound area.
If the bleeding does not stop there, the rescue service must be notified. In any case, a doctor must be consulted following the first aid procedure, as the wound may need to be sutured or stapled.
Caution: Tying the arms and legs is the last resort of amputation or very large, unquenchable bleeding. Too great is the risk that damage to vessels and nerves are caused.
For larger wounds threatens a shock
Depending on how high the blood loss is, there may be circulatory reactions such as a drop in blood pressure or increase in heart rate to shock. This is an emergency and it must be notified immediately an ambulance!
Signs of a shock in the child:
- The child may be restless, confused, dizzy or sleepy.
- The skin is pale gray, cool and sweaty, the lips may be blue.
- The pulse rate is increased but only weak to feel.
- Breathing can be accelerated, the child is gasping or gasping for breath
- Possibly. Vomit
- The child can become unconscious.
As an immediate measure, the child must be shocked (legs are stored high). If the child does not breathe by itself, it must be ventilated.
First aid for nosebleeds
The most common cause of nosebleeds is the bursting of small vessels in the nasal mucosa. If this bleeding occurs in a child, it should stop or sit, but do not put your head back. Because this increases the blood pressure in the head and the bleeding is more likely to increase. Again, it helps to put pressure on the wound. Therefore, the nose of the child is for at least 10 minutes with your index finger and thumb firmly closed.
Another measure is the so-called nasal tamponade. Suitable for this is normal toilet paper. It is turned into a 1.5-2 cm long, pencil-strong roll and greased with skin cream. The tampon is inserted into the anterior part of the bleeding nose and here too the nostrils are firmly pressed together. Maintain pressure for at least 10 minutes. An ice pack in the neck supports hemostasis.