The aim of the treatment of high blood pressure is to reduce the blood pressure permanently to normal levels, to avoid consequential damage. The sooner and more consistently the treatment, the better this will succeed. The primary treatment for primary hypertension is based on general measures. Sometimes a change in lifestyle as part of a treatment is already enough to effectively combat high blood pressure. Lowering blood pressure can also be achieved with medications that are used when the general measures of therapy are insufficient. The secondary hypertension is tackled with the elimination of the cause; If this is not enough, medications are also used for treatment.
General measures for hypertension
Ultimately, it is relatively simple: If you have the risk factors under control, the high blood pressure is usually under control. Considering the factors that favor primary hypertension, it quickly becomes clear how to lower high blood pressure without using medication for therapy:
- Achieve and maintain normal weight
- When eating, look for a healthy, low-meat and low-fat mixed diet (low-salt, low-spicy spices, low alcohol)
- Exercise regularly
- Exercise endurance sports (eg swimming or jogging)
- Stop smoking
- Reduce stress (for example with autogenic training or yoga)
- It is also important to adequately treat an existing diabetes or lipid metabolism disorder, as these increase the risk of subsequent damage to the vessels.
Medicines for the treatment of hypertension
If the measures mentioned do not help or are insufficient for treatment, medications are used. Antihypertensive drugs include drugs that stimulate kidney water and salt excretion (especially diuretics), dilate vessels (such as calcium channel blockers), or quench the autonomic nervous system (for example, beta blockers).
The treatment is tailored to the individual. For example, age and previous illnesses are of concern. Usually a preparation is started; only when this (or an alternative) does not help, it is combined with another active ingredient. The medicines for high blood pressure - even if there are no symptoms - must be taken regularly and in most cases for a lifetime.